July 8, 2013

WHAT IS HYPERTENSION AND VARIOUS RISK FACTORS RELATED TO HYPERTENSION


INTRODUCTION:
Hypertension is mainly a heart related problem. In a lay man language it is high blood pressure. It is the abnormal elevation (rising) of the blood pressure than normal. It is also called “SILENT KILLER” because the people having it are symptom free means before checking their blood pressure (B.P.) they were unaware of it because previously they were not having any sign of it, so it is very important to have your regular BP check-up. As soon as you come to know that you are having hypertension then it is very important to have your regular BP monitoring because it is a life- long condition. In medical language hypertension is defined as a systolic pressure greater than 140 mm hg and a diastolic pressure greater than 90 mm hg monitored over two consecutively BP Measurements  by a licensed health professional. It is very simple to understand that as our BP comprises of two values that one is upper value called systolic pressure and a lower value called diastolic pressure. The normal person’s BP is 120/70 mm hg means 120 mm hg is the systolic pressure and 70 mm hg is the diastolic pressure .A person is said to be hypertensive when his/her BP is greater than 140/90 mm hg of two regular readings taken by a health professional. Hypertension is the major health problem it accounts for 20-50% of all deaths. 
                                        CLASSIFICATION OF HYPERTENSION
                 CLASS
SYSTOLIC BP
 (mm hg)
DIASTOLIC BP
(mm hg)
Normal
< 120
< 70 
Pre hypertension
120-139
80-89
Stage 1 hypertension
140-159
90-99
Stage 2 hypertension
>160
>100
   
Health education on hypertension
         
          Primary Hypertension: Primary hypertension is a type of Hypertension when the causes causes are generally not known & it is the main type of hypertension in people.
               Secondary Hypertension: Secondary hypertension is a type of Hypertension when it is due to some other diseases such as kidney problem etc.

These are the factors which aid in the development of hypertension means increasing the risk for causing this problem. These are categorise as “Modifiable”, means the factors which a person can modify or change to have normal BP & other one is “Non-modifiable”, which are not in the hands of a person to change them. These are described as:

Non-modifiable risk factors:
Ø  AGE: Normally BP rises with increasing age in both sexes but greater in those with higher initial BP that is the cause that elderly people have greater BP than the younger people because of some accumulated environmental & ageing influences.
Ø  SEX: In the early life there is no much difference in the BP of both sexes but at adolescence men having higher level of BP than women however in late life women having higher level of BP because of post-menopausal changes.
Ø  GENETIC FACTORS: Blood pressure levels are also inheritable as they can transfer from parents to children. Studies shows that children of two normotensive (having normal BP) parents having 3% chances of transferring it while two hypertensive parents having 45% chances of transferring it to their children.

Modifiable risk factors:
Ø  OBESITY: The main cause cum risk factor of hypertension is obesity that means having the weight more than normal. Many studies shows that as you lose your weight, BP also come down than previous one.
Ø  DIET: ØRegulation of BP also depends upon your diet. Taking less salt (< 2 gm per day)  in your diet can lead to decrease your BP. Take high fibre diet such as green leafy vegetables, fruits, salads etc. these fibres help in reducing plasma cholesterol level which is the main cause of high BP. Taking high potassium diet(banana) also helps in lowering BP as potassium antagonise (act against) the effect of sodium. Do not take too much oily & spicy food can also help in reducing BP level as these contain too much cholesterol.
Ø  SEDANTARY LIFE STYLE: Not doing physical activities such as those activities which do not require any physical energy can lead to high BP. Modern people in their daily life usually do mental work in their respected job areas but not any work which require .walking which is the main cause of high BP because it leads to fat accumulation (obesity) ultimately to hypertension.
Ø  ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: Stress is the main environmental factor which lead to high BP because in stress there is more release of chemicals (nor epinephrine) in body which lead to high BP.
Ø ALCOHOL/SMOKING: Consumption of alcohol & smoking having increased risk of developing hypertension as these are vasoconstrictor means raising the pressure in arteries (blood carrying vessels) which lead to hypertension.
   
   To check various SIGN & SYMPTOMS OF HYPERTENSION Read our Next Article (CLICK HERE)
   
  By: Dr. Naina Sharma.